Poison

Factory

最近处理应用性能问题时分析栈帧时发现部分线程名称为类似 pool-15-thread-2841 的模式,经过排查,原因为开发创建自定义线程池时未指定线程工厂导致,默认会使用 Executors.defaultThreadFactory() 实现。

如开发调用 Executors.newFixedThreadPool(int) 方法时,相关源码为:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
/**
* Creates a thread pool that reuses a fixed number of threads
* operating off a shared unbounded queue. At any point, at most
* {@code nThreads} threads will be active processing tasks.
* If additional tasks are submitted when all threads are active,
* they will wait in the queue until a thread is available.
* If any thread terminates due to a failure during execution
* prior to shutdown, a new one will take its place if needed to
* execute subsequent tasks. The threads in the pool will exist
* until it is explicitly {@link ExecutorService#shutdown shutdown}.
*
* @param nThreads the number of threads in the pool
* @return the newly created thread pool
* @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code nThreads <= 0}
*/
public static ExecutorService newFixedThreadPool(int nThreads) {
return new ThreadPoolExecutor(nThreads, nThreads,
0L, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS,
new LinkedBlockingQueue<Runnable>());
}

/**
* Creates a new {@code ThreadPoolExecutor} with the given initial
* parameters and default thread factory and rejected execution handler.
* It may be more convenient to use one of the {@link Executors} factory
* methods instead of this general purpose constructor.
*
* @param corePoolSize the number of threads to keep in the pool, even
* if they are idle, unless {@code allowCoreThreadTimeOut} is set
* @param maximumPoolSize the maximum number of threads to allow in the
* pool
* @param keepAliveTime when the number of threads is greater than
* the core, this is the maximum time that excess idle threads
* will wait for new tasks before terminating.
* @param unit the time unit for the {@code keepAliveTime} argument
* @param workQueue the queue to use for holding tasks before they are
* executed. This queue will hold only the {@code Runnable}
* tasks submitted by the {@code execute} method.
* @throws IllegalArgumentException if one of the following holds:<br>
* {@code corePoolSize < 0}<br>
* {@code keepAliveTime < 0}<br>
* {@code maximumPoolSize <= 0}<br>
* {@code maximumPoolSize < corePoolSize}
* @throws NullPointerException if {@code workQueue} is null
*/
public ThreadPoolExecutor(int corePoolSize,
int maximumPoolSize,
long keepAliveTime,
TimeUnit unit,
BlockingQueue<Runnable> workQueue) {
this(corePoolSize, maximumPoolSize, keepAliveTime, unit, workQueue,
Executors.defaultThreadFactory(), defaultHandler);
}

/**
* Returns a default thread factory used to create new threads.
* This factory creates all new threads used by an Executor in the
* same {@link ThreadGroup}. If there is a {@link
* java.lang.SecurityManager}, it uses the group of {@link
* System#getSecurityManager}, else the group of the thread
* invoking this {@code defaultThreadFactory} method. Each new
* thread is created as a non-daemon thread with priority set to
* the smaller of {@code Thread.NORM_PRIORITY} and the maximum
* priority permitted in the thread group. New threads have names
* accessible via {@link Thread#getName} of
* <em>pool-N-thread-M</em>, where <em>N</em> is the sequence
* number of this factory, and <em>M</em> is the sequence number
* of the thread created by this factory.
* @return a thread factory
*/
public static ThreadFactory defaultThreadFactory() {
return new DefaultThreadFactory();
}

/**
* The default thread factory
*/
static class DefaultThreadFactory implements ThreadFactory {
private static final AtomicInteger poolNumber = new AtomicInteger(1);
private final ThreadGroup group;
private final AtomicInteger threadNumber = new AtomicInteger(1);
private final String namePrefix;

DefaultThreadFactory() {
SecurityManager s = System.getSecurityManager();
group = (s != null) ? s.getThreadGroup() :
Thread.currentThread().getThreadGroup();
namePrefix = "pool-" +
poolNumber.getAndIncrement() +
"-thread-";
}

public Thread newThread(Runnable r) {
Thread t = new Thread(group, r,
namePrefix + threadNumber.getAndIncrement(),
0);
if (t.isDaemon())
t.setDaemon(false);
if (t.getPriority() != Thread.NORM_PRIORITY)
t.setPriority(Thread.NORM_PRIORITY);
return t;
}
}

其中 java.util.concurrent.ThreadFactory 接口的声明为:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
/**
* An object that creates new threads on demand. Using thread factories
* removes hardwiring of calls to {@link Thread#Thread(Runnable) new Thread},
* enabling applications to use special thread subclasses, priorities, etc.
*
* <p>
* The simplest implementation of this interface is just:
* <pre> {@code
* class SimpleThreadFactory implements ThreadFactory {
* public Thread newThread(Runnable r) {
* return new Thread(r);
* }
* }}</pre>
*
* The {@link Executors#defaultThreadFactory} method provides a more
* useful simple implementation, that sets the created thread context
* to known values before returning it.
* @since 1.5
* @author Doug Lea
*/
public interface ThreadFactory {

/**
* Constructs a new {@code Thread}. Implementations may also initialize
* priority, name, daemon status, {@code ThreadGroup}, etc.
*
* @param r a runnable to be executed by new thread instance
* @return constructed thread, or {@code null} if the request to
* create a thread is rejected
*/
Thread newThread(Runnable r);
}

为了便于应用诊断时定位问题线程,我们建议创建自定义线程池时指定一个线程工厂用于指定新建线程的名称,比如我们的工具类中有这样一个线程工厂用于指定名称:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
import java.util.concurrent.ThreadFactory;
import java.util.concurrent.atomic.AtomicInteger;

public class NamedThreadFactory implements ThreadFactory {

private final ThreadGroup group;
private final AtomicInteger threadNumber = new AtomicInteger(1);
private final String namePrefix;

public NamedThreadFactory(String prefix) {
SecurityManager s = System.getSecurityManager();
group = (s != null) ? s.getThreadGroup() : Thread.currentThread().getThreadGroup();
namePrefix = prefix + "-thread-";
}

public Thread newThread(Runnable r) {
Thread t = new Thread(group, r, namePrefix + threadNumber.getAndIncrement(), 0);
if (t.isDaemon())
t.setDaemon(false);
if (t.getPriority() != Thread.NORM_PRIORITY)
t.setPriority(Thread.NORM_PRIORITY);
return t;
}

}

类似的实现在 dubbo、lucence、sentinel、guava 等开源项目中都能看到,如:

References

Factory