Poison

Collections.shuffle(List)

Java 中 Collections.shuffle(List<?>) 方法的实现基于 Fisher–Yates shuffle 算法,核心的思想用几行代码即可表述:

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for (int i = size; i > 1; i--){
swap(arr, i - 1, rnd.nextInt(i));
}

Collections.shuffle(List<?>) 方法实现中对不支持随机访问的数据结构进行了适配,如当前 List<?> 实现为链表时,在元素个数大于等于 5 个时,先将链表转换为支持随机访问的数据结构:数组,然后再对每个索引上的元素进行交换,最后再转换回链表,以保证算法运行时间为线性时间。

Collections.shuffle(List<?>) 源码:

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/*
* Tuning parameters for algorithms - Many of the List algorithms have
* two implementations, one of which is appropriate for RandomAccess
* lists, the other for "sequential." Often, the random access variant
* yields better performance on small sequential access lists. The
* tuning parameters below determine the cutoff point for what constitutes
* a "small" sequential access list for each algorithm. The values below
* were empirically determined to work well for LinkedList. Hopefully
* they should be reasonable for other sequential access List
* implementations. Those doing performance work on this code would
* do well to validate the values of these parameters from time to time.
* (The first word of each tuning parameter name is the algorithm to which
* it applies.)
*/
private static final int SHUFFLE_THRESHOLD = 5;

/**
* Randomly permutes the specified list using a default source of
* randomness. All permutations occur with approximately equal
* likelihood.
*
* <p>The hedge "approximately" is used in the foregoing description because
* default source of randomness is only approximately an unbiased source
* of independently chosen bits. If it were a perfect source of randomly
* chosen bits, then the algorithm would choose permutations with perfect
* uniformity.
*
* <p>This implementation traverses the list backwards, from the last
* element up to the second, repeatedly swapping a randomly selected element
* into the "current position". Elements are randomly selected from the
* portion of the list that runs from the first element to the current
* position, inclusive.
*
* <p>This method runs in linear time. If the specified list does not
* implement the {@link RandomAccess} interface and is large, this
* implementation dumps the specified list into an array before shuffling
* it, and dumps the shuffled array back into the list. This avoids the
* quadratic behavior that would result from shuffling a "sequential
* access" list in place.
*
* @param list the list to be shuffled.
* @throws UnsupportedOperationException if the specified list or
* its list-iterator does not support the <tt>set</tt> operation.
*/
public static void shuffle(List<?> list) {
Random rnd = r;
if (rnd == null)
r = rnd = new Random(); // harmless race.
shuffle(list, rnd);
}

private static Random r;

/**
* Randomly permute the specified list using the specified source of
* randomness. All permutations occur with equal likelihood
* assuming that the source of randomness is fair.<p>
*
* This implementation traverses the list backwards, from the last element
* up to the second, repeatedly swapping a randomly selected element into
* the "current position". Elements are randomly selected from the
* portion of the list that runs from the first element to the current
* position, inclusive.<p>
*
* This method runs in linear time. If the specified list does not
* implement the {@link RandomAccess} interface and is large, this
* implementation dumps the specified list into an array before shuffling
* it, and dumps the shuffled array back into the list. This avoids the
* quadratic behavior that would result from shuffling a "sequential
* access" list in place.
*
* @param list the list to be shuffled.
* @param rnd the source of randomness to use to shuffle the list.
* @throws UnsupportedOperationException if the specified list or its
* list-iterator does not support the <tt>set</tt> operation.
*/
@SuppressWarnings({"rawtypes", "unchecked"})
public static void shuffle(List<?> list, Random rnd) {
int size = list.size();
if (size < SHUFFLE_THRESHOLD || list instanceof RandomAccess) {
for (int i=size; i>1; i--)
swap(list, i-1, rnd.nextInt(i));
} else {
Object[] arr = list.toArray();

// Shuffle array
for (int i=size; i>1; i--)
swap(arr, i-1, rnd.nextInt(i));

// Dump array back into list
// instead of using a raw type here, it's possible to capture
// the wildcard but it will require a call to a supplementary
// private method
ListIterator it = list.listIterator();
for (int i=0; i<arr.length; i++) {
it.next();
it.set(arr[i]);
}
}
}
References

384. 打乱数组