Poison

Thread.yield()

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/**
* A hint to the scheduler that the current thread is willing to yield
* its current use of a processor. The scheduler is free to ignore this
* hint.
*
* <p> Yield is a heuristic attempt to improve relative progression
* between threads that would otherwise over-utilise a CPU. Its use
* should be combined with detailed profiling and benchmarking to
* ensure that it actually has the desired effect.
*
* <p> It is rarely appropriate to use this method. It may be useful
* for debugging or testing purposes, where it may help to reproduce
* bugs due to race conditions. It may also be useful when designing
* concurrency control constructs such as the ones in the
* {@link java.util.concurrent.locks} package.
*/
public static native void yield();

ConcurrentHashMapinitTable 方法中,可以看到对该方法的使用,源码如下:

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/**
* Initializes table, using the size recorded in sizeCtl.
*/
private final Node<K,V>[] initTable() {
Node<K,V>[] tab; int sc;
while ((tab = table) == null || tab.length == 0) {
if ((sc = sizeCtl) < 0)
Thread.yield(); // lost initialization race; just spin
else if (U.compareAndSwapInt(this, SIZECTL, sc, -1)) {
try {
if ((tab = table) == null || tab.length == 0) {
int n = (sc > 0) ? sc : DEFAULT_CAPACITY;
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
Node<K,V>[] nt = (Node<K,V>[])new Node<?,?>[n];
table = tab = nt;
sc = n - (n >>> 2);
}
} finally {
sizeCtl = sc;
}
break;
}
}
return tab;
}

可以看出,若当前线程判断 table 当前时刻已经在被其他线程进行初始化时,则调用 Thread.yield() 提示调度程序当前线程愿意放弃对当前处理器的使用权,以尝试降低对 CPU 的争用。

同样的,在 Sentinel 核心数据结构 LeapArray 的源码中,也可以看到对该方法的调用,部分源码如下:

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/**
* Get bucket item at provided timestamp.
*
* @param timeMillis a valid timestamp in milliseconds
* @return current bucket item at provided timestamp if the time is valid; null if time is invalid
*/
public WindowWrap<T> currentWindow(long timeMillis) {
if (timeMillis < 0) {
return null;
}

int idx = calculateTimeIdx(timeMillis);
// Calculate current bucket start time.
long windowStart = calculateWindowStart(timeMillis);

/*
* Get bucket item at given time from the array.
*
* (1) Bucket is absent, then just create a new bucket and CAS update to circular array.
* (2) Bucket is up-to-date, then just return the bucket.
* (3) Bucket is deprecated, then reset current bucket and clean all deprecated buckets.
*/
while (true) {
WindowWrap<T> old = array.get(idx);
if (old == null) {
/*
* B0 B1 B2 NULL B4
* ||_______|_______|_______|_______|_______||___
* 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 timestamp
* ^
* time=888
* bucket is empty, so create new and update
*
* If the old bucket is absent, then we create a new bucket at {@code windowStart},
* then try to update circular array via a CAS operation. Only one thread can
* succeed to update, while other threads yield its time slice.
*/
WindowWrap<T> window = new WindowWrap<T>(windowLengthInMs, windowStart, newEmptyBucket(timeMillis));
if (array.compareAndSet(idx, null, window)) {
// Successfully updated, return the created bucket.
return window;
} else {
// Contention failed, the thread will yield its time slice to wait for bucket available.
Thread.yield();
}
} else if (windowStart == old.windowStart()) {
/*
* B0 B1 B2 B3 B4
* ||_______|_______|_______|_______|_______||___
* 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 timestamp
* ^
* time=888
* startTime of Bucket 3: 800, so it's up-to-date
*
* If current {@code windowStart} is equal to the start timestamp of old bucket,
* that means the time is within the bucket, so directly return the bucket.
*/
return old;
} else if (windowStart > old.windowStart()) {
/*
* (old)
* B0 B1 B2 NULL B4
* |_______||_______|_______|_______|_______|_______||___
* ... 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 timestamp
* ^
* time=1676
* startTime of Bucket 2: 400, deprecated, should be reset
*
* If the start timestamp of old bucket is behind provided time, that means
* the bucket is deprecated. We have to reset the bucket to current {@code windowStart}.
* Note that the reset and clean-up operations are hard to be atomic,
* so we need a update lock to guarantee the correctness of bucket update.
*
* The update lock is conditional (tiny scope) and will take effect only when
* bucket is deprecated, so in most cases it won't lead to performance loss.
*/
if (updateLock.tryLock()) {
try {
// Successfully get the update lock, now we reset the bucket.
return resetWindowTo(old, windowStart);
} finally {
updateLock.unlock();
}
} else {
// Contention failed, the thread will yield its time slice to wait for bucket available.
Thread.yield();
}
} else if (windowStart < old.windowStart()) {
// Should not go through here, as the provided time is already behind.
return new WindowWrap<T>(windowLengthInMs, windowStart, newEmptyBucket(timeMillis));
}
}
}
References

Yield (multithreading) - Wikipedia
Run queue - Wikipedia